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How to change the listening port for Remote Desktop

To change the port that Remote Desktop listens on, follow these steps.

Important This section, method, or task contains steps that tell you how to modify the registry. However, serious problems might occur if you modify the registry incorrectly. Therefore, make sure that you follow these steps carefully. For added protection, back up the registry before you modify it. Then, you can restore the registry if a problem occurs. For more information about how to back up and restore the registry, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

322756 How to back up and restore the registry in Windows
  1. Start Registry Editor.
  2. Locate and then click the following registry subkey:
    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server\WinStations\RDP-Tcp\PortNumber
  3. On the Edit menu, click Modify, and then click Decimal.
  4. Type the new port number, and then click OK.
  5. Quit Registry Editor.
  6. Restart the computer.

Note When you try to connect to this computer by using the Remote Desktop connection, you must type the new port. Maybe you have to set the firewall to allow the new port number before you connect to this computer by using the Remote Desktop connection.

How to prevent remote users from shutting down/rebooting the Windows

Open secpol.msc from the Run menu to open “Local Security Policy”, from there navigate to Security Settings -> Local Policies -> User Rights Assignment. In that subfolder find the option for Shut down the system and add the group named Console Logon to the list then remove the other groups from the list.

Multiple port forwarding setup

 

On router 2, you need to open the port assign to the wan port  of router 1. for example 192.168.22.5 cctv use 37777 tcp

on router 1, you need to open the port assign to the DVR. for example 192.168.8.19 cctv use 37777 tcp.

 

How to Determine Your Network Cabling & Wiring Needs

The conveyance media you choose for your structured cabling implementation is determined by many factors, the most important of which are your current bandwidth needs, your network environment, your expected future bandwidth requirements and your budget. This article will address each of these primary concerns in an attempt to help you identify which cabling solution will best meet your specific requirements.

Determining Your Current Network Bandwidth Needs

Your primary concern in determining the type of cabling to use is your network’s current bandwidth requirements. This figure can vary greatly based on the size of the network (i.e. the number of workstations connected to the network). A small network of 15 workstations will generally have much lower bandwidth requirements than a network that needs to support 100 workstations. Future growth should also be factored when considering network size. If your company is expecting to double the number of employees over the next two years, then you can expect your network bandwidth needs to increase accordingly. To complicate matters further, you must also factor in the type and volume of the data traffic that your network will be supporting. For example, a small multimedia and graphic design firm with only 10 workstations will likely have much greater bandwidth requirements than a law firm consisting of 25 workstations. Again, this is due primarily to the type and volume of the data one can expect in each work environment: a single user transferring a 5-minute high definition video across the network can easily consume more bandwidth than 20 users opening MS Word and Excel files.

So how do you accurately determine your network bandwidth requirements?

There are several ways to analyze network traffic, but the best and most accurate method is to utilize a tool called a network analyzer. Among the simplest and most ubiquitous of these tools is a utility that is built into all flavors of Windows servers called Network Monitor. The Network Monitor utility gives detailed insight into traffic on a network segment and can detail broadcast traffic and specific packets transmitted to or from a machine. There are also several other third-party products such as Ethereal (free), as well commercial analyzers such as Network General Fast Ethernet Sniffer, Cinco NetXRay, AG Group EtherPeek, Novell LANalyzer for Windows, and Intel LANDesk Traffic Analyst among many others. It is important to note than when using a network analyzer to monitor your current network’s bandwidth usage, that you sample data over the course of several days (or even weeks), and that you do so throughout different times of the day. Doing this will ensure that you make the most accurate assessment of your network’s bandwidth requirements.

Your Network Environment

Your network environment plays a large part in determining the best type of cabling you should use. While optical fiber offers the fastest possible bandwidth and is the best medium for “future proofing” your network, certain environments are ill suited toward fiber optic installation. Unlike twisted copper mediums like Cat5e or Cat6, optical fiber is prone to transmission problems due to dirt and scratches on the fiber. This can be typical of dirty or dusty mechanical closets, equipment closets, and any rooms that are not clean or friendly to fiber technology. In such cases, twisted copper solutions might be the best way to go. Alternatively, certain environments cause problems with twisted copper mediums. Although Cat5e and Cat6 have much improved noise immunity than their twisted copper predecessors, they are susceptible to high RF (radio frequency) and EMI (electromagnetic interference). Hospitals for example, have tremendous RF interference problems over twisted pair cabling. A Cat5e or Cat6 cable running alongside a CAT scanner or NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) scanner would be rendered virtually useless due to RF interference. In such environments, optical fiber is the ideal solution as it is all but immune to such interference.

Future Bandwidth Requirements

It is rare that people think to factor in the growth of a company, or the launching of new products and services when estimating future bandwidth requirements. But, failure to make an accurate assessment of future bandwidth requirements can end up costing a lot of money. Unfortunately, estimating future bandwidth is both complex and often speculative. As an example, it might seem that doubling the number of employees in a company would result in a doubling of the network bandwidth demand. Rarely is it so straightforward, however. Consider that several of the new employees might be multimedia authors, who generally have much higher bandwidth requirements. Also consider that bringing on several new sales people means bringing on the back-and-forth communication between those sales people and all their customers. Perhaps the sales department has decided to host an in-house, web-based CRM implementation — this could result in an increase in bandwidth requirements that are that are far out of proportion to the rest of the users on the network. Because of such factors as these, it is important that a network administrator have knowledge of the future plans for a business when planning a structured cabling implementation. Generally speaking, it is far less costly to “future proof” a structured cabling implementation than it is to replace the existing cabling once it becomes apparent that it is not sufficient to meet the demands of the network.

Your Budget

While working within a budget is certainly something one should consider, it must be understood that the difference in costs between Cat5e, Cat6 and optical fiber is insignificant compared to the costs involved in not using the correct conveyance media for current and future network requirements. The old adage that “it’s better to do it right the first time” certainly holds true when planning your network infrastructure. Not doing it right the first time could cost your company far more than it saved by choosing an older technology or less expensive conveyance media, not to mention that not choosing the correct media could cripple a network and bring about the wrath of it’s users. Because of this, current and future bandwidth requirements, as well as an understanding of your network environment should play a far more important role than cost in determining which type of cabling is best suited for your needs.

 

Five of the Best Web Browsing Privacy Programs

In today’s time and age, one has to take safety and security as some of their top priorities. You know how whistleblower Edward Snowden revealed that the National Security Agency (NSA) accesses the central servers of major companies like Microsoft, Google, Yahoo, AOL, Skype, Apple, Facebook, YouTube, and others.

You should always think that this agency (and several others) analyze all electronic communication devices, files, and everything else that they contain and store. You cannot tell the government to exclude you from their surveillance list. What you should do instead is to control your own web privacy.

Because of the above-mentioned revelation from Snowden, you should never underestimate the power web browsing privacy programs. You should always use cryptography and encryption software in order to keep things as private as possible.

What Encryption Is

When you encrypt data, you can send sensitive information to authorized individuals via the Internet. It features a formula that render the information unreadable or inaccessible to people who do not have the “code” or the “key.” Proper encryptions will allow only you and those who have the code or key to access the data.

Here are five of the best web privacy and encryption software you should use.

  1. AdBlock Plus

One of the most commonly sought-after browser extensions, this open source community project addresses a lot of the annoying issues that come with intrusive and sensitive-data-stealing online ads. Its motto, which is: “We want to make the Internet better for everyone. Purging bad ads is a good start,” aptly describes what they can do for their users.

  1. EasyList & EasyPrivacy

Created specifically for AdBlock users, these subscriptions contain filter lists that, when activated, automatically eradicates unwanted ads and unauthorized tracking from all your web activities. With these two enabled, you no longer have to worry about web bugs, information collectors, and tracking scripts. In other words, you can ensure your personal data, specifically the sensitive ones, remain private and secure.

  1. Ghostery

Ghostery, a web monitoring tool, turns you into a detective by having more than 1200 trackers containing information about annoying and data-stealing ad networks, web publishers, and data providers among many other companies that want to be privy of your web activities, Internet behavior, and other net-concerned habits.

  1. Tor Browser

Another open source tool, Tor makes your Internet activities anonymous. It comes bundled with a browser that you can use for Linux, Windows, and Mac operating systems without having to install any other unnecessary software. Its primary functions are to prevent anyone from gaining knowledge of the sites Internet users visit, prevent websites from learning your physical location, and provide you with access to blocked or banned websites.

  1. HTTPS Everywhere

With HTTPS Everywhere, you can make sure every website you enter and visit starts with https://. This means that all sites you visit go into an encrypted mode. You can use for both Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome (BETA).

 

Do not allow your websites and all web-related activities to become privacy concerns. Start using these programs and extensions now.

ref: https://www.buycpanel.com/five-best-web-browsing-privacy-programs/

Factory Reset OS

Below is some guideline of the shortcut key to perform the factory reset for following brand of PC/Laptop

Acer – Alt + F10

Asus – F9

Dell/Alienware – F8

HP – F11

Lenovo – F11

MSI – F3

Samsung – F4

Sony – F10

Remote IT Support

10 reasons why use remote IT support

1. Efficiency

There’s no way around the fact that if you have to drive to every client, you’re spending precious time (time that could be billable) in your car. Instead of a fifteen to thirty minute drive, why not make that a fifteen second dial of a phone number? You’ll be getting more done, faster, thereby you’ll be billing more hours and working far more efficiently. Yes, you’ll have the downtime of getting clients connected to you – but most often that is a fairly painless process (there are of course those clients that simply don’t get what “open your web browser” means).

2. Cost effective

Doing remote support means you’re not using gas or adding wear and tear to your vehicle. It also means fewer chances of accidents while driving (so cheaper insurance rates). Remote support can also save your budget in many, varied ways: Eating lunch at home, less budget spent on clothing, and even less money spent using your smartphone data plan to look up information for the job at hand.

3. Green

Again we return to vehicle usage. When doing remote support, you’re not driving. When not driving, you’re not adding to the greenhouse gas issue. Having a greener overall footprint can help you in many ways. First, you can find possible tax credits. Second, your reputation for being a conscientious business will precede you – thus helping to win you over more clients. But this issue shouldn’t necessarily be about winning over clients…right?

4. Client-friendly

How many times have you stepped into a job to find the clients to be less than happy you are on site? Whether it’s due to bad timing, impossible scheduling, or what – there are instances when you arriving at a client location is less than ideal. When that occasion arises, it can quickly escalate into you not getting much work done (or worse, working under a pressure you don’t need). Avoid this by offering remote support for those clients that would rather hear you, than see you.

5. Multi-tasking

When you work remotely, you can do as many jobs as you can juggle. I have, on more than one occasion, had six remote sessions going at one time. If each of those appointments takes an hour to resolve, that’s six billable hours taken care of in one hour. This type of situation, of course, must be handled with care. You cannot bill a client for an hour when the job would have taken significantly less time had you not been double-dipping. If handled properly,  remote support enables you to get much more done in less time.

6 After hours

Remote support also allows you to work after hours. This, of course, is not for everyone. But there are certain situations (such as Windows updates – especially on servers) where working after hours is the only way to get something done. For those times, you’ll be glad you offer remote support. I have run into numerous instances where a client had a problem but didn’t have time for me to work on said problem until they were out of the office. Remote support – perfect solution.

7. Work from home

I have to confess…I’m a big fan. Why? Why not? Working in my PJs, working at my own pace, working within a safe and known environment…what is there not to like? I always find, when I’m working within a comfortable environment, I work better. Injecting remote services into your business model is the easiest means of making the work-from-home model work for you.

8. Fast response

The difference between hopping in your car and dialing a phone number could be crucial. This is especially true when you’re dealing with failing machines or clients that demand immediate turn around. Your clients will greatly appreciate the super fast contact times and you will be glad for the quick resolution of issues.

9. Controlled environment

Like working in your most comfortable pajamas, working in an environment you can control will go a long, long way to helping you get your work done as efficiently as possible. When working on site, there is no way you can control the variables thrown your way. This is also very much dependent upon the client. If you’ve ever done support for a retail client, you know trying to get anything done inside the business (especially during business hours), is nearly impossible. When working remotely, you don’t have to worry about customers or clients getting in your way.

10. Less intrusive

There are clients that simply don’t want you there. There are also clients you don’t want to be around. Doing remote work avoids this trap all together. You won’t have to feel like you are in the way of someone else doing their job or feeling unwanted (which certainly does nothing to make a job more efficient). A lot of clients greatly appreciate it when you can get their technology back up and running smoothly from behind the magic curtain.

Not every job can be handled remotely. Considering remote work depends upon a solid network connection, and it should be pretty obvious there will be times when you will simply have to be on site. But when you have the choice, working remotely sure makes the job easier in many ways. If you have the opportunity to add remote service to your menu, give it a try…both you and your clients will be glad you made the addition.

ref: http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/10-things/10-reasons-you-should-offer-remote-support-to-your-clients/

Window Life Cycle

Every Windows product has a lifecycle. The lifecycle begins when a product is released and ends when it’s no longer supported. Knowing key dates in this lifecycle helps you make informed decisions about when to upgrade or make other changes to your software.

End of support

End of support refers to the date when Microsoft no longer provides automatic fixes, updates, or online technical assistance. This is the time to make sure you have the latest available update or service pack installed. Without Microsoft support, you will no longer receive security updates that can help protect your PC from harmful viruses, spyware, and other malicious software that can steal your personal information. For more information go to Microsoft Support Lifecycle.


 Client operating systems Latest update or service pack End of mainstream support End of extended support
  Windows XP Service Pack 3 April 14, 2009 April 8, 2014
  Windows Vista Service Pack 2 April 10, 2012 April 11, 2017
  Windows 7* Service Pack 1 January 13, 2015 January 14, 2020
  Windows 8 Windows 8.1 January 9, 2018 January 10, 2023
Windows 10, released in July 2015** N/A October 13, 2020 October 14, 2025

 

ref: https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/13853/windows-lifecycle-fact-sheet

QNAP Launches QTS-Android Combo NAS TAS-168/268

TAS-x68_Release_en

Taipei, Taiwan, December 1, 2015 – QNAP® Systems, Inc. today announced the world’s first and only QTS-Android Combo NAS – TAS-168 and TAS-268, which support QTS & Android dual systems. Both systems share the same storage database, allowing users to simultaneously access media files and documents from QTS and Android. With a compact mini-tower design, the TAS-168/268 comfortably fits in homes and small offices/workspaces. Coupled with up to terabytes of storage capacity and 4K (H.265 & H.264) HDMI-out, the TAS-168/268 is the optimal budget-friendly multimedia NAS with unlimited app applications for modern digital lifestyles.

“The QNAP QTS-Android Combo NAS TAS-168/268 is an unprecedented network storage center for file storage, backup, remote access and diverse Android applications,” said Hanz Sung, product manager of QNAP. “Users can enjoy video streams, use apps and manage files on a big HDMI display instead of sliding and tapping on a small screen. The TAS-168/268 makes the personal cloud experience more flexible and enjoyable.”

Powered by an ARM® v7 1.1GHz dual-core processor with 2GB DDR3 RAM, the TAS-168/268 supports terabytes of storage capacity and is designed as a media NAS optimized for home use. Users can simply connect a keyboard, mouse and HDMI display to directly manage, edit and play files stored on the TAS-168/268 via Android, without needing an additional PC. Using TAS is extremely easy as the Androidexperience is the TAS experience, and users can freely control their multimedia experience with the bundled remote control.

With the TAS-168/268, users can download various videos and educational apps from Google Play on Android, or install QNAP apps and access other app marketplaces from Qmarket. Whether enjoying 4K (H.265 & H.264) videos, streaming videos from Android apps, using apps as e-learning tools or centrally managing files, the QTS-Android Combo NAS TAS-168/268 is a great choice for enjoying infinite applications and fun.

In addition to working independently, the TAS-168/268 can also be used with another QNAP NAS to handle more applications. QTS RTRR/rsync functions helps back up files on the TAS-168/268 to another NAS. With the Android interface displayed via HDMI, users can use apps like Qphoto, Qmusic and Qvideo to browse multimedia files on another QNAP NAS, or install the Vmobile app to monitor IP cameras from the Surveillance Station of another NAS. With another NAS using QTS 4.2, users can activate the remote connection function in File Station to manage share folders in the TAS-168/268 through FTP, WebDAV, and CIFS/SMB.

With various VPN apps available in Google Play, users can stream media contents from blocked sites, or create a secure OpenVPN tunnel between the TAS and another NAS to process remote backup tasks. The TAS-168/268 is also a great file center for synchronization. Users can synchronize their files across multiple connected devices using Qsync or use Cloud Drive Sync to synchronize files to Google Driveand Dropbox®.

The TAS-168/268 provides an easy way to create a secure personal cloud which alleviates the storage limitations and data security concerns of public cloud services. myQNAPcloud provides multiple remote access services for users to conveniently access, manage and share multimedia files on the TAS-168/268 from anywhere with a web browser. Users can also access and browse files on TAS-168/268 by using QNAP mobile apps including Qfile, Qphoto, Qmusic, Qvideo and Qmanager.

Key specifications of new models

  • TAS-168:1-bay mini-tower NAS
  • TAS-268:2-bay mini-tower NAS

ARM® v7 1.1GHz dual-core processor, 2GB DDR3 RAM; 3.5” SATA 3Gbps HDD; 1 x USB 3.0 port; 4 x USB 2.0 port; 1 x Gigabit LAN port; 1 x HDMI output

adapt from https://www.qnap.com/i/en/news/con_show.php?op=showone&cid=457

Average Temperature of The Processor

The appropriate operating temperature of your processor depends on its manufacturer, top clock speed, where the sensor is located, and what programs it is currently running. However, this document should give you a general idea of what temperatures are acceptable under certain conditions.
The majority of today’s desktop processors should not exceed temperatures of 35°C and most run between 21°-32°C. Below is a chart listing many types of processors and their average temperatures. Keep in mind, this is only to give our users a general idea of what their processor should be running at. If you believe your computer is running too hot, you can skip to the bottom of this document for information about the safe temperature range for your processor.

ProcessorsAverage temperature
AMD A645°C – 57°C
AMD A1050°C – 60°C
AMD Athlon85°C – 95°C
AMD Athlon 6445°C – 60°C
AMD Athlon 64 X245°C – 55°C
AMD Athlon 64 Mobile80°C – 90°C
AMD Athlon FX45°C – 60°C
AMD Athlon II X450°C – 60°C
AMD Athlon MP85°C – 95°C
AMD Athlon XP80°C – 90°C
AMD Duron85°C – 95°C
AMD K560°C – 70°C
AMD K660°C – 70°C
AMD K6 Mobile75°C – 85°C
AMD K7 Thunderbird70°C – 95°C
AMD Opteron65°C – 71°C
AMD Phenom II X645°C – 55°C
AMD Phenom X350°C – 60°C
AMD Phenom X450°C – 60°C
AMD Sempron85°C – 95°C
Intel Celeron67°C – 85°C
Intel Core 2 Duo45°C – 55°C
Intel Core i350°C – 60°C
Intel Core i550°C – 62°C
Intel Core i750°C – 65°C
Intel Pentium II65°C – 75°C
Intel Pentium III60°C – 85°C
Intel Pentium 445°C – 65°C
Intel Pentium Mobile70°C – 85°C
Intel Pentium Pro75°C – 85°C

Sync your clock with the domain controller

The quickest way to synchronise your clock with the domain time, open a command prompt window and type:
NET TIME /DOMAIN

To force a computer to synchronize its time with a specific computer, send the following command:

NET TIME \\<MACHINENAME> /SET /Y

-or-

NET TIME \\<IP Address> /SET /Y

Where <MACHINENAME> is the domain controller computer name, or IP address.

Disable/Enable Command Prompt

Command Prompt is a feature of Windows that provides an entry point for typing MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk
Operating System) commands and other computer commands. The most important thing to know is that
by typing commands, you can perform tasks on your computer without using the Windows graphical
interface. Command Prompt is typically only used by advanced users.

Disable:

When you open Command Prompt this message will be displayed:
The command prompt has been disabled by your administrator.
Press any key to continue …
wpfe99888a_01
Gpedit:

Warning Computers running Windows Vista Home do not have access to Group Policy (gpedit.msc)
This method shows you how to Disable/Enable Command Prompt from Group Policy
Please perform the following steps:
Type gpedit.msc and press Enter
In the Group Policy window please navigate to User Configuration> Administrative Templates>
System and open Prevent access to the command prompt
The Default state is Not Configured and Command Prompt is Enable
To Enable cmd select
Disable
To Disable cmd select Enable


Backup Solution for Business

QNAP Turbo NAS performs as an ideal backup center, with large storage capacity and excellent file transfer speed to greatly assist businesses on efficient backup tasks. In addition to being a backup center, the Turbo NAS can also have its data backed up to external storage devices, remote servers, and third-party cloud backup services easily and conveniently.

e2_Apple-Time-MachineFree PC backup utility for Windows users

The QNAP NetBak Replicator, a license-free backup utility provided with any Turbo NAS unit to execute data backup on Windows OS, helps users back up files from Windows PC – entire disk drives, documents, pictures, music, videos, fonts, emails, and more – to one or multiple Turbo NAS units on the network. Besides, NetBak Replicator also supports backing up to a remote server via FTP and WebDAV. The operation is very simple, and the data backup can be done in just a few clicks by the settings of real-time synchronization, scheduled backup and auto-backup.

The enhanced QNAP NetBak Replicator utility comes with many advanced features to help you easily back up data on Windows PC to the Turbo NAS.

  • Runs as a background service without login session required
  • Allows silent installation for administrators to deploy NetBak Replicator by Group Policy (GPO) on computers quickly without interruption
  • Creates VSS snapshot of VM or database on the Windows, and backs up the content of the snapshot to the Turbo NAS
  • Supports VHD/VHDX (Virtual Hard Disks) backup

Apple Time Machine supportThe Turbo NAS supports Apple Time Machine and provides Mac OS X users with an effortless solution to back up data to the Turbo NAS. This greatly saves cost of purchasing an external hard drive for every Mac user in order to back up their data. Besides, configurable storage quota for backup jobs is allowed so that IT administrators can arrange a certain amount of capacity dedicated for Mac data backup.

e2_Double_protectionBack up to external drives

By connecting external drives to the Turbo NAS via the eSATA or USB ports, IT administrators can easily configure and copy the shared folders on the Turbo NAS to the external devices. The external hard drive backup supports multiple backup tasks, email notifications, and scheduling, giving IT administrators more flexibility to arrange data backup.

With the supports of external drives in EXT3, EXT4, FAT32, HFS+, and NTFS format and high-speed read/write performance, the Turbo NAS can back up data to these devices and restore the data in Mac and Windows environment.

Advanced external drive backup options allow IT administrators to replicate data to designated local disk volume. When setting up multiple external drives as backup destination, each backup task will be correctly mapped to the corresponding external drive even after the external drives are repeatedly removed and plugged back. IT administrators are rest assured data backup is always functioned correctly.

In addition, the Turbo NAS is compatible with various renowned backup software on the market, such as Acronis® True Image, CA® ARCserve Backup, Retrospect®, Symantec® Backup Exec, LaCie® SilverKeeper and so on. Companies that have already adopted such backup software can immediately back up Turbo NAS data to the external drives by means of the third party backup software.

Backup center

The Turbo NAS is an inclusive backup center to safeguard important business data.

QNAP NetBak ReplicatorThe QNAP NetBak Replicator helps back up files from Windows PCs to one or multiple Turbo NAS units on the network. The operation is very simple, and the data backup can be done in just a few clicks of the settings in real-time synchronization, scheduled backup and auto-backup.

Apple Time Machine

The Turbo NAS supports Apple Time Machine and provides Mac OS X users with an effortless solution to back up data to the Turbo NAS. Besides, configurable storage quota for backup jobs is allowed so that IT administrators can arrange a certain amount of capacity dedicated for Mac data backup.

Third-party backup software

The Turbo NAS is compatible with various renowned backup software on the market, such as Acronis® True Image, CA® ARCserve Backup, Retrospect®, Symantec® Backup Exec and so on.

2-way sync

QNAP’s RTRR (Real-Time Remote Replication) service allows scheduled data backup to synchronize shared folders between two Turbo NAS units, ensuring the synced Turbo NAS will always have identical data. The 2-way synchronization provides better backup efficiency and improves office and branch collaboration.

product_RTRR

Window 10

Are you a Windows 8 user? Still using Windows 7? Either way, you’ll love Windows 10.

Over the six years since Windows 7 was released, Microsoft has made its PC operating system far more intuitive and powerful by packing it with tablet- and smartphone-like features.

Windows 10 has a Start Menu, just like Windows 7 — only better.

On the left Start Menu column, you’ll find a list of your most used apps, most visited folders and recently added software. There’s also a button that will show you all your apps in a single list.150220164556-windows-10-start-menu-small-780x439

 

On the right part of the Start Menu, there is a grid of app tiles that you can arrange however you like. The “live” tiles will show you updates, such as the latest stock prices, the last show you were watching on Netflix, social media updates, weather, news and sports scores.

150220164656-windows-10-start-menu-large-780x439

If you want, you can take the Start Menu full-screen by clicking the “expand” button — it’s kind of like having a tablet or smartphone screen for a desktop. But, crucially, it’s only there if you want it. The default is the familiar Windows desktop experience.

Windows 10 provides some design changes that Windows 7 users will welcome. For example, taskbar icons glow at the bottom when they are opened, but only the app icon that is currently being used is completely highlighted. In Windows 7, all open apps are highlighted, confusingly.

150220164423-windows-10-files-780x439

Folder icons are far less glitzy and much more intuitive in Windows 10, making it much easier to view the contents of the folder at a glance before you open it. Gone is the confusing and redundant “libraries” directory. The task manager is also much simpler to use.

Windows 7 users should be unafraid of upgrading when Windows 10 hits store shelves later this year. There is hardly any learning curve, and the new bells and whistles alone are definitely worth checking out.

Better than Windows 8: So what if you’ve upgraded to Windows 8? Here are the big differences you’ll notice in Windows 10.

Windows 8’s odd tablet-style layout was confusing to Windows die-hards. You won’t find Windows 10 difficult to use. Windows 10 boots straight to the desktop, and it stays there.

If you have a convertible laptop or Windows tablet, Windows 10 has a “tablet mode” that recognizes when there is no keyboard or mouse present. But rather than make two separate tablet and desktop interfaces like Microsoft did for Windows 8, Microsoft chose to make the Windows 10 desktop and apps more finger-friendly for tablet users. They only morph a little to fit the device they’re running on.

So if you download a “modern” app from the Windows Store, it will run in a window, just like standard Windows software. The only difference is that it has a diagonal arrow button between the “close” button and the “expand” button at the top right of the window. That will take the app into “tablet mode,” going full-screen. But you can easily get out of that by moving the mouse to the top of the screen and clicking the button again.

Windows 8’s unhelpful charms bar has been replaced with the Windows 10 action center. There, you get notifications and access to handy quick settings, such as brightness controls, airplane mode, Wi-Fi and tablet mode toggles.

150220163923-windows-10-action-center-780x439 150220164656-windows-10-start-menu-large-780x439

Also different is Windows 8’s app-choosing feature, that let you go back to the last-used app by swiping in fro the left. It has been replaced with a far more useful display of all your open apps on a single screen.

Touchscreen users can access the action center with a swipe in from the right, just as they can view all the open apps by swiping in the from the left. But, mercifully, Windows 10 put buttons for both on the taskbar so mouse and keyboard users won’t accidentally launch those features by putting the cursor too far to the left or right.

Window 10’s New Features: Windows 10 isn’t just about correcting Windows 8’s mistakes, though. There are new features that Windows 8 users will love.

The coolest new feature is Cortana, Windows 10’s version of Siri, which appears net to the Start button on the taskbar.

“She” has a sense of humor (“I know Siri, but I don’t KNOW her, know her, if you get what I mean,” Cortana says in response to an obvious question). But in addition to barking voice commands and queries, the search feature is genuinely helpful.

It will search your apps, the Windows Store, the Web and your files to answer search queries. It’s a super-quick way to launch an app (just start typing and hit Enter when the app appears). And like Windows 8’s outstanding search function, Cortana can help you access deeply hidden settings with a few keyboard strokes, helping you avoid hunting and pecking through control panel settings.

Windows 10 also comes with multiple desktops, which is helpful for cleaning up a messy workspace.

I have been testing the preview version of Windows 10 for a few weeks. There are plenty of things not to like, including the fact that you still can’t access all your settings from the “settings” app. We’ll cover more of the hits and misses in a fuller review once Microsoft gets closer to releasing Windows 10.

But the preview has shown me enough to confidently say that Windows 10 will be a breeze to use, a welcome change for both Windows 7 and Windows 8 users, and a big hit for Microsoft.

money.cnn.com/2015/02/22/technology/windows-10-review/index.html

Guide of solving common wireless network problem

One of the most common root causes for having slow and unstable wireless network connections is interference. Many things interfere with a wireless network: everything from walls to the microwaves you use in the kitchen to other wireless networks. That’s why I decided to learn more on the subject, experiment with my own wireless network and share what I have learned. You will understand more about what can interfere with your wireless network and learn how to deal with interferences from other wireless networks.

The Causes & Symptoms for Wireless Network Interference Problems

There are many possible causes for having interference problems with your wireless network:

  • The physical landscape where your network is placed: the apartment, office building or house where the wireless network is found. Walls and doors interfere with the signal of your network, lower its strength and the transfer speed.
  • Electronic equipment you are using: microwave ovens, cordless phones, wireless headsets, Bluetooth devices, surveillance cameras operate at the 2.4 gigahertz (GHz) frequency used by most wireless networks.
  • The physical distance from the router or the device emitting the wireless signal. The further away, the weaker the signal weaker. This always translates into a higher likelihood of being impacted by different kinds of interference.
  • Last but not least, other wireless networks can interfere with yours.

When your wireless network has interference problems you can encounter one or more symptoms: reduced range for your WiFi network (generally much lower than what the manufacturer of your router mentions in the hardware specifications), sudden drops in transfer speeds, the wireless signal dropping out in certain places or at certain times during the day, your wireless signal strength going up and down randomly.

What Makes Wireless Networks Interfere With Each Other?

If two or more wireless network are placed close to one another, then they can interfere with each other if:

They use the same operating frequency (2.4 GHz or 5 GHz). The 802.11g and 802.11b standards use the 2.4 GHz operating frequency, 802.11n can operate both at 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz while 802.11a can operate only at 5 GHz.
They use the same channel or neighboring channels which overlap. A wireless router can send the wireless signal using a set channel, from 1 to 11 or 13 (depending on the router model and where it is sold). To make sure there is a smaller likelihood of overlapping with other channels, you should choose channel 1, 6 or 11 (or 13 if available for your router). By default, most routers are set to use channel 6, thus the reason for conflicts.
Identify Interference Problems from Other Wireless Networks With inSSIDer

Identifying the exact root cause for your interference problems can be quite a pain, depending on your location. If you are in a busy area with lots of wireless networks around, then your problems are most likely caused by the other networks.

So… how do you fix them? You can use a tool named inSSIDer (working download link: here). We covered the basics of using it in a previous tutorial: Find Hidden Wireless Networks & View Useful Information (Including the SSID). I recommend that you read it first, before going ahead with the instructions in this article.

Let’s assume you are trying to fix interference problems in your own home. If you are using android, download wifi analyzer software into your phone.

wifi analyzer

Pay attention to how wireless networks disappear from the radar or show up on it. View how your network signal evolves. In the areas where you encounter most issues, you most probably have other wireless networks active.

 

Possible Solutions to Your Wifi Interference Problems

If your router fully supports the 802.11n standard, you can use it and switch to the 5 GHz operating frequency. However, this can cause some problems you need to be aware of. First, the wireless network signal will not be able to penetrate as far as when using the 802.11b standard, for example. It is better absorbed by walls, doors and other solid objects. If covering a large area is important, you might not want to go this route. Then, another issue is caused by support for this standard. Older laptops, smartphones and wireless adapters do not support it. Test your older equipment and learn if it can detect and connect to the wireless network when using the 802.11n standard.

If you have a dual band router, that can operate both at 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz, then you can connect the newer devices to the 5 GHz wireless network and the older equipment to the 2.4 GHz network. Depending on your router, in this scenario, you can encounter issues with file sharing and how devices and computer detect each other over the network. Don’t hesitate to test things through and check if file sharing works as needed.

If changing the operating frequency and the wireless standard is not an option, then you have to analyze the signal used by all wireless networks in your area.

In the screenshots used in this article, my home network is named C1pr1an. It uses channel 7 to operate. Most networks in my area use channel 6. If look on the 2.4 GHz tab, I can see how my wireless network signal overlaps with many networks, especially with those using channel 6. It is clear that it is best to change the channel.

adapted from www.7tutorials.com/layman-guide-solving-wireless-network-interference-problems

Web Content Filtering

Web Content Filtering

DrayTek’s Web Content Filtering (WCF) facilities enable you to protect your network and your users from web content according to your preferences. There are many reasons for doing this, for example:

Reason to BlockExample
UnsuitableAdult material for children
UndesirableTime wasting sites for employees
DangerousMalware or virus-ridden web sites
FraudulentConfidiential data leaving your network

As DrayTek WCF is performed by your router – your point of entry to the Internet – it is far more difficult to circumvent than software solutions installed on each client/PC and applies to guest PCs too (laptops etc.). Blocking/filtering can be selective for certain computers, users or groups too, so that, for example, managers can have less filtering imposed than other users and time schedules can apply these content filtering for specific time periods only (the facilities and granularity of this depends on the specific model of router selected).

Internet Control in the Home

Whilst the Internet can be hugely beneficial to any home, both for adults and children, there is also the opportunity for it to become distractive, over-consuming as well as risky. For children, a common use of control control is to block inappropriate content, such as web sites with sexual, violent or other adult-oriented content. That’s the inappropriate content, but even age-appropriate content can be undesirable. Facebook might be great for your teens, and CBeebies for your younger children, but not if they are supposed to be doing something else. Many parents want to control access to the Internet, for example allowing access to acceptable web sites for specified times of day only. For your adult users in the home, you may want to block access to sites which have a high probability of being infected with malware. You may also wish to block your own computers from sending emails in case of trojan/zombie infection. There are infinite combinations of content filtering and firewalling you might want to impose in your home.

Staff Internet Abuse – A real cost to your business

The Internet provides your business with an effective, useful and often essential facility. Your staff can use it to find quick answers, liaise with customers, send and receive emails and many other productive tasks. Unfortunately, the Internet also provides the opportunity for mis-use. DrayTek products can help you restrict, control and monitor staff Internet usage.

Staff using your Internet facility for time-wasteful activities are costing you. Even more importantly these activities can put your businesses computers and network at risk. A recent survey of 10,000 employees indicated that 44% admitted to spending time on the Internet for personal use, for up to 2.1 hours per day.

Most staff are responsible and prudent with their Internet use and we always recommend a suitable AUP (Acceptable Use Policy) to be in place so that staff or any users of your systems know what they are and aren’t permitted to use the computers for. This AUP can be re-inforced by DrayTek routers which can block specific content (either at certain times only or all times) and also block potentially harmful file/code types from being installed by rogue web sites. There are some staff who will make severe abuse of the Internet facilities – spending literally hours on personal matters or social networking sites.

Top 5 Personal Internet Uses for Employees

 

  • Personal Email: Hotmail, Gmail, Yahoo etc.
  • Intant Messaging: Skype, AOL, Yahoo etc.
  • Social Networking: Facebook, MySpace, Twitter etc.
  • Buying: Using Amazon, Ebay etc.
  • Multimedia : YouTube, iPlayer etc.

 

It’s easy to let a ‘quick visit’ become a prolonged stay without realising and losing track of time. All of the above activities can be immensely time consuming and addictive. What doesn’t quite make the list but could be even more serious in its consequences is adult or illegal material being accessed in the workplace, as well as the higher likelihood that such sites are infected with malware which will then get onto your business network. There is also the potential to ‘innocently’ download software and install it on local PCs, unwittingly introducing spyware or trojans onto your network.

Introducing DrayTek Web Content Filtering

DrayTek Web Filtering allows you to block web content in four main ways:

 

  1. By matching keyword / specific sites
  2. By web site category (Subject to Subscription)
  3. By digital content type
  4. IP Filtering (Actually part of the firewall, along with many other security features.)

Features 1,3 and 4 above are included with the router. Feature 2 is included but requires an annual subscription to the external server which keeps a real-time constantly updated database of web sites. More details of that later. Features supported varies with router model; please check on specifiction for confirmation of Web Content Filter capabilities.

1. Keyword Matching URL Content Filter

In Keyword Matching you can specify a list of either banned (blacklist)) or permitted sites (whitelist). The DrayTek method is ‘object’ oriented, which means that you create lists of keywords or sites, can then group them and then apply them into specific user groups or time periods

Using a blacklist, all sites would be accessible by your users except those that match the keywords you specify. This would be useful, for example where there are specific sites known to be causing disruption or timewasting in your organisation such as social networking or webmail. The example below would allow access to all sites except the ones listed:

web_url_blacklist

A whitelist, on the other hand, is much more restrictive on what your users can access as it blocks all web sites by default and then only allows access to web sites which match your keywords. This is useful when you really want to lock down your Internet access to only allow very specific web site access. The example below would block access to all web sites except those listed:

web_url_whitelist

The URL blacklist and whitelist feature support varies with router model; Please check on specification for details of keyword matching support.

2. Web Site Category (DrayTek GlobalView)

DrayTek’s GlobalView is built into most of our routers and allows you to select specific categories of web site which your router will allow access to. For example, an office may wish to block access to social networking or other company time-wasting sites or a home user might want to block adult sites from their children. In public Internet access facilities, you might want to block various unsuitable categories.

GlobalView covers 64 separate categories which you can select as blocked or permitted. Every time one of your users attempts to access a site, the router’s automatically queries the central GlobalView server to ascertain its classification. This takes only milliseconds. If a site is blocked by GlobalView, according to the categories you have selected, instead of the requested web page, a warning message is displayed to the user (you can customise the message).

The GlobalView central database is continuously updated with new sites and changes to sites but also records normally legitimate sites which have become compromised or contain malware (a unique feature to GlobalView). Access to the GlobalView server requires an annual subscription. A free 30-day trial is included with all new routers so that you can try the feature out before subscribing. Scroll down the box below to see the 64 different categories which can be blocked by GlobalView, either permanently or at certain times of day/week according to your chosen schedule and for the PCs you choose.

GlobalView Categories :

Globalview requires a subscription to the Globalview server. This is a 12-month subscription available from your dealer. There is no additional licensing for the number of users you have; it is a flat fee based on your router model:

Subscription TypeSupported Series
Group AVigor 2820, 2830, 2850, 2860, 2920, 2925, 3200, PBX2820
Group BVigor 2110, 2130, 2710, 2750, 2760
Group SVigor 3300V+, 300B, 2930, 2960, 2950, 2955, 3510, 3900, 5510

wcf_categories_cropped

Why Globalview?

Globalview uses a unique method of categorisation to ensure the most accurate, relevant and up to date database of web sites. In particular compared to other services, these are some important advantages of Globalview:

  1. Globalview is built into the hardware. There are software solutions for category blocking or parental control but they have to be installed on each PC, maintained on each PC and someone with the right skills (a skilled employee or smart child!) can often find a way to bypass or disable the software. DrayTek’s Globalview operates at your Internet point of entry so examines all web site URLs requested and cannot be turned off without administrative rights to the router.
  2. GlobalView is a commercial/professional Service
    . Unlike some other services, GlobalView does not rely on volunteers to submit suggestions for sites to include or rely on volunteers to categorise each site submitted (and multiple users to then concur which the category proposal). Relying on community-driven categorisation can lead to inaccuracies, delays, mischief and an incomplete database which omits many sites, particularly those which are more obscure or unknown (which are also more likely to be undesirable). The Globalview WCF service has been available for many years, and continuously evolves to improve performance and accuracy.
  3. GlobalView is not a Domain Resolution Service, therefore it is not possible to bypass it merely by changing the DNS settings on your PC, or by browsing by IP address instead of URL. Globalview intercepts and examines all web requests for their specific destination rather than just intercepting DNS requests and rejecting those which it believes should be blocked.
  4. Categorisation uses an automated mechanism.
    GlobalView URL filtering is based on a hugely scalable cloud-based architecture that uses the extensive cloud computing resources available for categorization. GlobalView URLF uses a dynamically built, relevant local database with real-time connectivity to a hugely scalable cloud-based repository. GlobalView URLF therefore provides more complete, relevant categorization of the Internet. GlobalView’s main benefit is the highly intelligent and accurate categorisation algorithms which are used to build its database.
  5. Zero-Hour Protection
    The Internet is a living, continuously growing and evolving system. As GlobalView operates in real-time, it can categorise a site from the moment it becomes available from the first time it is requested, and re-categorise it if it changes at a later date without community-driver or user intervention. Users do not have to manually submit sites for categorisation.
  6. Categorise IP Addresses
    Some other content filtering services can be bypassed simply by the user browsing to an IP address so that the URL is never considered/checked. Globalview will categorise sites based on their IP address if a user tries to access via that method. i.e. Both www.facebook.com and 69.63.190.18 would be blocked by GlobalView if you have prohibited social networking. This is also particularly useful in combating phishing emails which commonly use IP addresses instead of URLs. The DrayTek router can, in addition, block browsing by IP address altogether.
  7. Multiple Categories Per Site
    Globalview can identify a single web site or page as falling into several categories, for example a site might provide both ‘dating’ and ‘adult’ content so if you choose to block either of those, Globalview will correctly identify it as both.
  8. Site granularity
    Whereas other services considers only the top level domain (TLD) i.e. the URL up until the first “/”, Globalview will parse/consider the whole URL. This is particularly a problem for Web 2.0 sites such as blog sites (members.tripod.com/sitename) where one user’s blog might be for kids and other user’s contain adult-suited material. Another example is commercial sites which contain different materials types. For example, Globalview will distinguish between “sportsillustrated.cnn.com” (Sports pages) and “sportsillustrated.cnn.com/swimsuit/” (Swimwear models/nudity).
  9. Embedded Links are examined.
    Another common methods that users might use to bypass web controls is using parsing or translation web sites. For example, if you try to visit “http://translate.google.com/translate?tl=it&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.swimwearplace.com%2F” then GlobalView will correctly identify that you have asked Google to display ‘www.swimwear.com’ and block it if that is a category you have prohibited, whereas other services will just see ‘Google” and permit access based on the categorisation of Google (search engine).

3. Digital Content Type

DrayTek’s Content filtering allows you to specify particular data types or web content to be blocked by the router. The vigor is pre-set with many different content types or protocols. You can select any or all of them for blocking. There are infinite combinations but some examples of commonly blocked content are:

  • Block download of executable (EXE) or compressed (ZIP) files to reduce the chance or virus infection or installation of untested software.
  • Block Peer-to-Peer (P2P) software such as BitTorrent, to avoid users using vast amounts of your bandwidth or engaging in media piracy.
  • Block HTTP/FTP upload or webmail to prevent theft/espionage of your company data
  • At Home, block Instant Messaging protocols to prevent your children from unsupervised chat with strangers.
  • Block SMTP from all devices other than your mail server to stop Trojan Zombies

For detailed list on the protocols and content type which can be blocked, Click Here.

4. IP Filtering

This is a more technically complex method. All data sent across the Internet is sent as a ‘data packet’ between devices (for example between your PC and a web site) Each device has its own IP address (such as ‘194.194.123.18’). In addition, each data packet can be one of several data types (TCP, UDP, ICMP etc.) and may also have additional information such as TCP port numbers. Don’t worry if this all sounds a bit complicated; the useful factor here is that these packets can be distinguished and therefore rules can be set up on the router to block or pass packets which match parameters you choose.

Examples of useful IP filters might be to block incoming mail from all but known mail servers, or to allow access to your internal web server from all addresses except known remote locations. IP Filters can be nested so that a chain of filters can all be tied together and data passed only if one of, or all of the rule criteria are met. As we said, it’s a technically complex feature but immensely powerful.

Note : Although we include IP filtering here, most users actually consider that to be part of the main firewall features as it’s not filtering ‘by content’ as such.

 

SSL/TLS (“HTTPS”) Sites & DrayTek DNS Filter

 

Concerns regarding privacy and security have increasingly lead to web sites moving their services to web servers that offer SSL/TLS connections as standard. SSL/TLS connections are those prefixed with https:// or commonly shown with a ‘padlock’ symbol in your brower.

SSL/TLS is a protocol that allows communication to be secured encryption so that it can’t be read by a third party – anyone in between you and the server. This security also extends to the actual URL (web address) that the user enters, which has an impact on web content filtering methods that categorise websites based on the URL that is being accessed.

The Keyword matching URL Content Filter is unable to make web content filtering decisions for HTTPS requests because the web address is encrypted. DrayTek’s Globalview is also affected but the Globalview servers have other methods which can assist with categorisation decisions even when the URL is encrypted.

However a new feature is now available on various DrayTek products called DNS Filter.

When a PC tries to access a web site, it has to always convert that web address into an IP address (e.g. 194.213.12.44). That IP address itself cannot be encrypted by SSL/TLS because your router has to know where to send the data to!

DrayTek’s new DNS Filter examines all DNS lookups that your PCs make and then make categorisation or content filtering decisions. DNS Filter can be used with both the Keyword matching URL filter (whitelists/blacklists) and the Globalview Web Content filter.

Local Users and Groups Manager

 

 

When you first set up your new Windows 8 computer, you’ll be guided through the process of creating your own user account. While this certainly is enough to get you started, most computers will require additional accounts to cover all of its users. In Windows 7 you’d head to the Control Panel to create new users, but Windows 8 changes things up a bit. Before you get started, make sure you know the difference between Local and Microsoft accounts and which you want to use.

To start program (Local Users and Groups Manager) at Windows 8, please start “RUN” via shortcut key combination [Win-Logo] + [R] and enter in the Edit-Box the cmd (command): lusrmgr.msc

This run command will open “Local Users and Groups Manager” Program.Here is very easily to add more Windows 8 users, remove, disable, manage.

Screenshot_1

FIX : Unable To Use “Local Users & Groups Snap-in”

1. First of all make sure that others snap-ins like Group Policy, Security Policy etc. are working. Then press  Win+ R and put mmc.exe in Run dialog box, hit Enter.

2. This will take you to Management Console window. Click File -> Add/Remove Snap-in.
Screenshot_23. Moving on, in the following window, from the Available snap-ins section, select Local Users & Groups and click Add

4. Finally in the Choose Target Machine window, click Finish.

This will add the Local Users & Groups Snap-in to Windows functionality and you can use it. You may close theManagement Console window now and verify the results.

Installing Dropbox as a service on Windows

This is an updated post for some things have changed as of Windows Server 2008 R2. This solution is currently installed on Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1.
What you need: The file srvany.exe from the Windows Server Rresource Kit.

1. Install Dropbox (I used version 1.0.10)
2. Choose preferences and uncheck “Show desktop notifications” and “Start Dropbox on system startup”
3. Exit Dropbox by clicking exit in the context menu that shows when right clicking icon in task bar
4. Copy the file srvany.exe to a folder under “C:\Program Files\Windows Server 2003 Resource Kit”
5. Execute at command prompt (you might need to run command prompt as administrator):

sc create Dropbox binPath= "C:\Program Files\Windows Server 2003 Resource Kit\srvany.exe" DisplayName= "Dropbox Service"

If the service was created successfully, you will recieve message:
[SC] CreateService SUCCESS

Next is to change the user for witch the newly added service “Dropbox Service” runs under. Change this to Administrator.
6. Choose properties on Dropbox service.
7. Click on tab “Log On”
8. Click “This account”, and select Admimistrator. Set appropriate password.
9. Set startup type to “Automatic”
10. Click Apply and OK

If this is the first time you have done this procedure for the administrator user, you will get an notification saying that the “Administrator user has been granted log on as service rights”. DO NOT START SERVICE AT THIS TIME.

Next is to setup some registry settings for the service
11. Start > Run > regedit
12. Navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Dropbox
13. Create a new key “Parameters”
14. Add a new string value “Application”, (type REG_SZ). Set the value to the path to the dropbox.exe binary. Find the location by right clicking on the Dropbox icon on the desktop. Simply copy the path from there.
15. Close Registry Editor
16. Go back to Services, and start the Dropbox service

Remote VS Onsite Computer Repair Service

When you’re having trouble with your computer/pc, you have two basic option.

One choice is to fix the problem yourself. The other choice is to get someone else to fix it for you. You actually have several computer service options, including tech support if your warranty is still valid, or paying someone else to fix the problem for you.

Your pay-to-fix options usually boil down to just two options: onsite computer repair and online/remote computer repair.

So how do you decide? Do you take your computer to one of the many local computer repair shops to get it worked on or do you hire an online service to remotely connect to your computer and/or walk you through the solution to the problem?

It’s not always an easy decision but there are several questions you can ask yourself that will help make the best choice more obvious.

Do You Suspect a Serious Hardware or Software Problem?

If you suspect a serious hardware or software problem, an online computer repair service won’t do you much good. Any kind of problem that prevents you from successfully connecting to the Internet will likely prevent a remote support agent from connecting to your PC over that same Internet.

Some serious hardware/software problems include:

1. Problems powering on the computer (screen is completely blank, no power to the computer at all, etc.)
2. Issues that prevent Windows from loading (Blue Screen of Death, problems logging in to Windows, etc.)
3. Any issue accessing the Internet

If you’re experiencing the sorts of problems like the ones I mentioned above, I highly recommend seeking service from a qualified local computer repair service instead.

You could still contact an online repair service but you’ll probably be sent to a local repair shop and likely incur a charge for that referral. There’s no reason to waste your money getting a referral from a biased source like this.

Some online computer repair services will attempt to walk you through a step-by-step resolution to a serious problem that they can’t remotely fix themselves. While that’s certainly a better use of your money than a simple referral, you should know that whatever troubleshooting information they provide over the phone is probably available online, completely free of charge, from a computer repair website – like the one you’re on now!

Online computer repair services might not be able to fix every problem under the sun, but if they can fix yours, they’re often the better, and for sure the fastest, bet.

However, if it’s just about getting the job done right and getting it done fast, you’ll probably be better off choosing online computer repair service.

Getting Your PC Repair

Computer Beeping

When there is a failure of any of the hardware parts that are connected to your computer (RAM, CPU, PCI,…), the computer makes a series of beeps. The pattern of beeps represents the diagnostic. The motherboard is telling you what part is failing.

Checking your motherboard's connections

Make sure all your cards and cables are plugged in correctly. Specially you video card.

Take out any non-essential component (CD ROM, PCI cards[except video],…) and try to boot. Also try swapping power cables and connector ribbons.

At this point you need to replace your motherboard and RAM.

CPUs burn very rarely, and if your PCI cards do not overheat they should be OK. Be very carefull to change the RAM and Motherboard as if you try to recycle one, you might burn the new one. It is a risk!

If your motherboard has failed, it is better to buy another motherboard with a new CPU because old motherboards tend to become hard to find & expensive whereas deals on combo CPU/motherboard are cheap.

Check our Data Recovery if you need your files!

Failing Hard Drives

If your Hard Drive was working and then all the sudden it is not recognized (seen), by your system then it is bad news. Try changing the Hard Drive connection with the CD ROM connection just to make sure it is not the connection that is failing. If no success, go to the Data Recovery page to see if there is anything you can do to retrieve your data.

Power Supply

At this point it is either your power supply that is failing or your motherboard. The reason why we can disregard the other components at this point is that if any part fails, your motherboard will give you an error message one way or another by either beeping or giving an error code on the screen.
Most likely your Power Supply is damaged. Don’t worry, it is one of the most failure-prone items in PC systems. It is also very easy to replace and does not cost much!

On the bright side, your Motherboard, CPU and RAM should be OK. (It is very rare that the Motherboard gets damaged, specially if you have a good quality motherboard as they have some level of protection).

You need to get a working power supply and try it on your PC. Power Supplies are not servicable.

But if changing the power supply does not repair the problem then you need a new Motherboard.

5G Mobile / Cellular Technology

With the 4G telecommunications systems now starting to be deployed, eyes are looking towards the development of 5th generation or 5G technology and services.

Although the deployment of any cellular system takes many years, development of the 5G technology systems is being investigated. The new 5G technologies will need to be chosen developed and perfected to enable timely and reliable deployment.

The new 5th generation, 5G technology for cellular systems will probably start to come to fruition around 2020 with deployment following on afterwards.

5G mobile systems status

The current status of the 5G technology for cellular systems is very much in the early development stages. Several companies are looking into the technologies that could be used to become part of the system.

In addition to this the standards bodies, particularly 3GPP are aware of the development but are not actively planning the 5G systems yet.

Many of the technologies to be used for 5G will start to appear in the systems used for 4G and then as the new 5G cellular system starts to formulate in a more concrete manner, they will be incorporated into the new 5G cellular system.

5G cellular systems overview

As the different generations of cellular telecommunications have evolved, each one has brought its own improvements. The same will be true of 5G technology.

  • First generation, 1G:   These phones were analogue and were the first mobile or cellular phones to be used. Although revolutionary in their time they offered very low levels of spectrum efficiency and security.
  • Second generation, 2G:   These were based around digital technology and offered much better spectrum efficiency, security and new features such as text messages and low data rate communications.
  • Third generation, 3G:   The aim of this technology was to provide high speed data. The original technology was enhanced to allow data up to 14 Mbps and more.
  • Fourth generation, 4G:   This was an all-IP based technology capable of providing data rates up to 1 Gbps.

Any new 5th generation, 5G cellular technology needs to provide significant gains over previous systems to provide an adequate business case for mobile operators to invest in any new system.

Facilities that might be seen with 5G technology include far better levels of connectivity and coverage. The term World Wide Wireless Web, or WWWW is being coined for this.

For 5G technology to be able to achieve this, new methods of connecting will be required as one of the main drawbacks with previous generations is lack of coverage, dropped calls and low performance at cell edges. 5G technology will need to address this.

5G specifications

Although the standards bodies have not yet defined the parameters needed to meet a 5G performance level yet, other organisations have set their own aims, that may eventually influence the final specifications.

Typical parameters for a 5G standard may include:

SUGGESTED 5G WIRELESS PERFORMANCE
PARAMETERSUGGESTED PERFORMANCE
Network capacity10 000 times current network
Peak data rate10 Gbps
Cell edge data rate100 Mbps
Latency< 1 ms

Current research

There are several key areas that are being investigated by research organisations. These include:

  • Millimetre-Wave technologies:   Using frequencies much higher in the frequency spectrum opens up more spectrum and also provides the possibility of having much wide channel bandwidth – possibly 1 – 2 GHz. However this poses new challenges for handset development where maximum frequencies of around 2 GHz and bandwidths of 10 – 20 MHz are currently in use. For 5G, frequencies of above 50GHz are being considered and this will present some real challenges in terms of the circuit design, the technology, and also the way the system is used as these frequencies do not travel as far and are absorbed almost completely by obstacles.
  • Future PHY / MAC:   This area presents many possibilities from the use of new modulation formats including GFDM, Generalised Frequency Division Multiplexing, as well as FBMC, Filter Bank Multi-Carrier, UFMC, Universal Filtered MultiCarrier and other schemes to the management of the multiple access schemes. All these need to be developed. Higher levels of processing that will be available by the time 5G is launched mean that multicarrier systems will not require to be orthogonal as in the case of OFDM. This provides considerably more flexibility.
  • Massive MIMO:   Although MIMO is being used in many applications from LTE to Wi-Fi, etc, the numbers of antennas is fairly limited -. Using microwave frequencies opens up the possibility of using many tens of antennas on a single equipment becomes a real possibility because of the antenna sizes and spacings in terms of a wavelength.
  • Dense networks   Reducing the size of cells provides a much more overall effective use of the available spectrum. Techniques to ensure that small cells in the macro-network and deployed as femtocells can operate satisfactorily are required.

Other 5G concepts

There are many new concepts that are being investigated and developed for the new 5th generation mobile system. Some of these include:

  • Pervasive networks :   This technology being considered for 5G cellular systems is where a user can concurrently be connected to several wireless access technologies and seamlessly move between them.
  • Group cooperative relay:   This is a technique that is being considered to make the high data rates available over a wider area of the cell. Currently data rates fall towards the cell edge where interference levels are higher and signal levels lower.
  • Cognitive radio technology:   If cognitive radio technology was used for 5th generation, 5G cellular systems, then it would enable the user equipment / handset to look at the radio landscape in which it is located and choose the optimum radio access network, modulation scheme and other parameters to configure itself to gain the best connection and optimum performance.
  • Wireless mesh networking and dynamic ad-hoc networking:   With the variety of different access schemes it will be possible to link to others nearby to provide ad-hoc wireless networks for much speedier data flows.
  • Smart antennas:   Another major element of any 5G cellular system will be that of smart antennas. Using these it will be possible to alter the beam direction to enable more direct communications and limit interference and increase overall cell capacity.

There are many new techniques and technologies that will be used in the new 5G cellular or mobile telecommunications system. These new 5G technologies are still being developed and the overall standards have not yet be defined. However as the required technologies develop, they will be incorporated into the new system which will be defined by the standards bodies over the coming years.

5G technology timeline

No dates have been set yet for the development of 5G, but a number of companies and organisations have set their own 5G timelines so they can plan ahead.

One major enabler for 5G will be the release of spectrum, and it is anticipated that the new spectrum will be agreed at the World Radio Communication Conference, WRC to be held in 2015. The International Telecommunications Union, ITU is currently at work on the International Mobile telecommunications, IMT spectrum requirements for 2020 and beyond. After WRC-15, ITU will have a clearer path for determining network system and technology requirements.

estimations of the development of 5G technology estimate that the basic research phase will take place until around 2016 and then the standards will be developed between 2016 and 2018. Product development will then be a major activity between about 2018 and 2020, and early deployment will occur around 2020.

(Article first appear at www.radio-electronics.com)

Replacing Unifi Maxis Router with Fortinet

Replacing Unifi Maxis Router with Fortinet

Fortigate 40c with Unifi router/ maxis router

ScreenShot076

 

1. For fortigate 40c, the GUI configuration are limited, so have to set it using CLI.

2. Type following command to create sub-interface

config system interface
edit unifi
set type vlan
set vlanid 500
set vdom root
set interface wan1
set allowaccess https

* vlan 500 for unifi, vlan 621 for maxis

3. After create the sub-interface. go to system -> network -> interface as you will see

ScreenShot077

 

4. right click the sub-interface -> edit

5. select pppoe, enter your username and password, save

ScreenShot078

 

6. Go to policy, Create New

7. set the policy as follow

Incoming interface: internal

source address: all

outgoing interface: unifi/maxis

destination address: all

schedule: always

service: all

action: accept

enable NAT

ScreenShot079

 

Structured Cabling

The Hidden Hero of the IT cabling

Cabling is one of the most important elements within any IT network and is one of the biggest IT investments that companies make. Selecting the right cabling system can have a tangible impact on a range of issues, including network performance, the speed at which data can pass through the network. Therefore, making the right choice of cabling system is too important an issue to be ignored.

Understandably, since cabling is an occasional rather than a regular purchase, most IT managers cannot be expected to be experts in this area, but this does mean that they often need to rely on advice from contractors, consultants, installers and suppliers. This can be dangerous, depending on the quality of the information being distributed. Poor-quality or inadequate cabling systems can bring a network to a standstill.

There have even been occasions where it has been necessary to rip out large sections of structured cabling, due to faults that need to be located and repaired, costing the companies involved vast amounts of money, as well as lost time. These faults may not be immediately obvious, potentially causing the user company considerable disruption at a later date.

The good news is that with a basic understanding of the cabling market and installation issues, IT managers can make more informed choices. The first question is: structured or not? Direct cabling is cheaper, but it is essentially a blind network, without any means to manage or configure it easily. This is particularly important when changes need to be made, for instance switching around connections to end-users, should there be a reorganisation in an office.

When correctly labelled, the patch panel of a structured cabling system makes it easy to see at a glance every connection, so changes can be quickly and easily made, usually without requiring a specialist visit from a third party. Moreover, efficient installation means that any potential EMI or crosstalk options can be minimised, for instance by ensuring specified distances between cables, minimising bend radius and using techniques, such as dual-pathing with diverse routing of cables. Given how often most companies will need to make changes to their cabling systems, however small, structured cabling is these days the sensible option.

Sign and Symptoms of a Corrupt Hard Disk

Whenever a hard drive fails , everything happens all of a sudden . Within seconds your hard drive crashes and with it goes your important data . You can get a new hard disk but not your data . If you are lucky enough you can pay for a professional data recovery service and get your data back . If you don’t want to, then you can try out everything yourself . until you end up with recovering bits and pieces of your valuable data . which won’t be of any use to you.

1. Windows slowdown and BSOD

BSOD

If your hard is about to fail , then you will find your computer to slow down ridiculously . Once this happens you will see that your computer will take ages to start up . Even if your your computer starts up you will notice that your computer will be very slow , even slower than a slug ! . Further when you try to open up any drive or folder on your computer , it will be very slow and may freezer your system or lead to a blue screen . While most of the experts will point towards low ram or junk data as the culprits . In my experience its always the hard drive .

2. Corrupt Data

One your hard drive starts to fail , you will see a lot of corrupted data on your windows computer . You will be able to save any file , but when you try to open it windows will always show it as a corrupted file  . Even in many cases files start to disappear from a computer and a lot of programs stop responding and start freezing up your computer . If you ever get any similar errors then its a vital sign that your computer’s hard drive is failing  .

crm_corrupt_file

3. Automatic execution of chkdsk command on start up

This is another most common sign of failing hard drives . Every time you boot up your windows computer , the Chkdsk command will be run automatically while your PC boots up in windows . While this might be due to an improper shut down , but if this happens frequently then surely it indicates a failing hard drive on your computer .

Chkdsk

4. Clicking, Grinding and rattling noises from hard disk

This is the most common sign of failing hard drives that i have experienced with all of my computers hard drives . Often a hard drive starts to make a repetitive clicking noise in regular intervals . The clicking noise indicates that the write head of a hard drive is trying to write data onto the hard drive but its unable to do so . This is a very common sign of failing hard drive which is known as the click of death . No pun intended , but its a hard drive only threat .

Alternatively if you hear Grinding and rattling noise it is the motor that spins inside the hard drive , which is failing . Though theres another thing you should be aware of , sometimes a hard drive might be loosely installed inside a cabinet . Since a hard drives with an rpm of 7500 or more , it is normal for it to vibrate and make noises when it is loosely installed . If you hear a grinding or rattling noise again , first of all do check if your hard drive is installed properly in its tray or not .

5. Bad sectors

Bad sectors are little clusters of data on your hard drive that cannot be read . Bad sectors can of two types , which are hard bad sectors or soft bad sectors . While hard bad sectors cannot be repaired but the soft bad sectors can be repaired by a software . Windows Chkdsk can be used to repair soft bad sectors , While hard bad sectors cannot be repaired and indicates your hard drives is about to fail . But whatever the kind of bad sectors it may be , its always advisable to take a backup of your important data wherever your hard drives develop a bad sector . Sooner or later you hard drive is going to fail .

badsectormh2

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